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IQ tests and academic achievement tests are designed to be administered to either an individual (by a trained evaluator) or to a group of people (paper and pencil tests). The individually-administered tests tend to be more comprehensive, more reliable, more valid and generally to have better psychometric characteristics than group-administered tests. Of course, individually-administered tests are more expensive to administer because of the need for a trained administrator (psychologist, school psychologist, or psychometrician), and the limitation of working with just one person.
Psychological tests of personality function generally fall into the two broad categories of objective tests and projective tests. Objective tests have a restricted response format, such as allowing for true or false answers. A prominent example of an objective personality test would be the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Projective tests allow for a much freer type of response. An example of this would be the Rorschach test, in which a person states what they see in ink blots on ten cards. There is considerable controversy regarding the value and validity of projective testing. Nevertheless, both types of tests continue to be used in modern psychological practice.
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