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## Maxwell's equationsMaxwell's equations are the set of four equations by James Clerk Maxwell that describe the behavior of both the electric and magnetic fields.
## IntroductionMaxwell's equations provided the basis for the unification of electric field and magnetic field, the electromagnetic description of light, and ultimately, Theodor Kaluza's unification (Kaluza-Klein theory) of electromagnetism with Albert Einstein's theory of relativity.The modern mathematical formulation of Maxwell's equations is due to Oliver Heaviside and Willard Gibbs, who in 1884 reformulated Maxwell's original equations using vector calculus. (Maxwell's 1865 formulation was in terms of 20 equations in 20 variables, although in 1873 he attempted a quaternion formulation that he ultimately found awkward.) The change to the vector notation produced a symmetric mathematical representation that reinforced the perception of physical symmetries between the various fields. In the late 19th century, because of the appearance of a velocity () in the equations, Maxwell's equations were only thought to express electromagnetism in the rest frame of the Luminiferous aether (the postulated medium for light, whose interpretation was considerably debated). When the Michelson-Morley experiment conducted by Edward Morley and Albert Abraham Michelson produced a null result for the change of the velocity of light due to the Earth's hypothesized motion through the aether, however, alternative explanations were sought by Lorentz and others. This culminated in Einstein's theory of special relativity, which postulated the absence of any absolute rest frame (or aether) and the invariance of Maxwell's equations in all frames of reference. The electromagnetic field equations have an intimate link with special relativity: the magnetic field equations can be derived from consideration of the transformation of the electric field equations under relativistic transformations at low velocities. (In relativity, the equations are written in an even more compact, "manifestly covariant" form, in terms of the rank-2 antisymmetric field-strength 4-tensor.) Kaluza and Klein showed in the 1920's that the Maxwell's equations can be derived by extending general relativity into five dimensions. This strategy of using higher dimensions to unify different forces is an active area of research in particle physics. ## Summary## General CaseNote that the second equation is equivalent to the statement that magnetic monopoles do not exist.
It is important to note that these equations are generally considered in terms of ## In Linear Media/MaterialIn non-dispersive, isotropic media, ε and μ are time-independent scalars, and Maxwell's equations reduce to
## In a Vacuum
The vacuum is such a medium, and the proportionality constants in the vacuum are denoted by ε
c is simply the speed of light in vacuum, and thus that light is a form of electromagnetic radiation.## Detail## Charge Density and the Electric Fieldwhere is thefree electric charge density (in units of C/m^{3}), not including dipole charges bound in a material, and is the electric displacement field (in units of C/m^{2}). This equation corresponds to Coulomb's law for stationary charges in vacuum.The equivalent integral form (by the divergence theorem), also known as Gauss's Law, is:
In a
- .
dielectric constant.## The Structure of the Magnetic Fieldis the magnetic flux density (in units of tesla, T), also called the magnetic induction.Equivalent integral form:
is the area of a differential square on the surface with an outward facing surface normal defining its direction.Note: like the electric field's integral form, this equation only works if the integral is done over a closed surface. This equation is related to the magnetic field's structure because it states that given any volume element, the net magnitude of the vector components that point outward from the surface must be equal to the net magnitude of the vector components that point inward. Structurally, this means that the magnetic field lines must be closed loops. Another way of putting it is that the field lines cannot originate from somewhere; attempting to follow the lines backwards to their source or forward to their terminus ultimately leads back to the starting position. This implies that there are no magnetic monopoles. ## A Changing Magnetic Field and the Electric FieldEquivalent Integral Form:
- where
_{B} is the magnetic flux through the area A described by the second equation, ε is the electromotive force around the edge of the surface A.
Note: this equation only works of the surface A Note the negative sign; it is necessary to maintain conservation of energy. It is so important that it even has its own name, Lenz's law. This equation relates the electric and magnetic fields, but it also has a lot of practical applications, too. This equation describes how electric motors and electric generators work. This law corresponds to the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Note: Maxwell's equations apply to a right-handed coordinate system. To apply them unmodified to a left handed system would mean a reversal of polarity of magnetic fields (not inconsistent, but confusingly against convention). ## The Source of the Magnetic FieldwhereH is the magnetic field strength (in units of A/m), related to the magnetic flux B by a constant called the permeability, μ (B = μH), and J is the current density, defined by: J = ∫ρ_{q}vdV where v is a vector field called the drift velocity that describes the velocities of that charge carriers which have a density described by the scalar function ρ_{q}.
In free space, the permeability μ is the permeability of free space, μ
_{encircled} is the current encircled by the curve s (the current through any surface is defined by the equation: I_{through A} = ∫_{A}J·dA).Note: unless there is a capacitor or some other place where , the second term on the right hand side is generally negligible and ignored. Any time this applies, the integral form is known as Ampere's Law. ## A Final Note on Unit SystemsThe above equations are all in a unit system called mks (short for meter, kilogram, second; also know as the International System of Units (or SI for short). This is more commonly known as the metric system. In a related unit system, called cgs (short for centimeter, gram, second), the equations take on a more symmetrical form, as follows:
c is the speed of light in a vacuum. The symmetry is more apparent when the electromagnetic field is considered in a vacuum. The equations take on the following, highly symmetric form:
Note: All variables that are in bold represent vector quantities; see also vector calculus.See also natural units, Lorentz-Heaviside units. ## Formulation of Maxwell's equations in special relativity*to do: 4-vectors, and the**d'Alembertian operator*
## Maxwell's equations in terms of differential forms
In a vacuum, where ε and μ are constant everywhere, Maxwell's equations simplify considerably once you use the language of differential geometry and differential forms. Now, the electric and magnetic fields are jointly described by a 2-form in a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold which is usually called _{0} is 1. Here, J is a 1-form called the "electric current" satisfying the continuity equation
## References- James Clerk Maxwell, "A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field,"
*Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London***155**, 459-512 (1865). - James Clerk Maxwell,
*A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism*, 3rd ed., vols. 1-2 (1891) (reprinted: Dover, New York NY, 1954; ISBN 0-486-60636-8 and ISBN 0-486-60637-6). - John David Jackson,
*Classical Electrodynamics*(Wiley, New York, 1998). - Edward M. Purcell,
*Electricity and Magnetism*(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985). - Banesh Hoffman,
*Relativity and Its Roots*(Freeman, New York, 1983).
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