History of gardening

This entry concerns the history of ornamental gardening considered as an amenity of civilized life, as a vehicle for style, for conspicuous show and even an expression of philosophy.

See also subsistance gardening, the art and craft of growing plants, considered as a circumscribed form of individual agriculture.

The cultivation of plants for food long predates history. The earliest evidence for ornamental gardens is seen in Egyptian tomb paintings of the 1500s BC; they depict lotus ponds surrounded by rows of acacias and palmss. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were renowned as a Wonder of the World, although their existence is doubted. Darius the Great was said to have had a "paradise garden"; and around 350 BC there were gardens at the Academy of Athens.

Theophrastus, who wrote on botany, was supposed to have inherited a garden from Aristotle. Epicurus also had a garden where he walked and taught, and bequeathed it to Hermarchus of Mytilene. Alciphron also mentions private gardens.

In ancient Rome, the hortus started as a kitchen garden, and evolved into a flower garden maintained in the courtyard of the house. Wall paintings in Pompeii attest to elaborate development later, and the wealthiest of Romans built enormous gardens, many of whose ruins are still to be seen, such as those of Lucullus.

Table of contents
1 The historical development of garden styles
2 Historic gardeners
3 Notable historic gardens
4 References
5 External links

The historical development of garden styles

  • Royalty, most likely that found in Egypt, was probably also very instrumental in the development of the garden, much as royalty and the privileged classes throughout the centuries have continued to influence the design and actualization of gardens.
  • Assyrian/Persian paradise garden or enclosed hunting-orchard.
  • Hellenistic and Roman garden.
  • Byzantine/Turkish gardens.
  • The developed Persian garden, which evolved into the Mughal gardens of India.
  • Islamic Spanish gardens.
  • Medieval enclosed garden of northern Europe Hortus inclusus.
  • Terraced Italian garden of the Renaissance.
  • Baroque French gardens of Le Notre and followers.
  • English Landscape garden and its imitators, called 'English gardens.'
  • 'Hill-and-Pond' gardens of China and Japan.
  • Zen garden of Japan.
  • Romantic idealized English cottage garden.
  • Contemporary gardens.

Ancient Near East

Assyrian hunting parks and Persian paradise gardens

Egyptian temple courts

Hellenistic and Roman gardens

Islamic gardens

Renaissance gardens

Italian gardens

French gardens

Anglo-Dutch gardens

Landscape gardens

Romantic gardens

Picturesque gardens

'Gardenesque' gardens

The 'Gardenesque' style of English garden design evolved during the 1820's from Humphrey Repton's Picturesque or 'Mixed' style, largely under the impetus of J. C. Loudon, who invented the term.

In a Gardenesque plan, all the trees, shrubs and other plants are positioned and managed in such a way that the character of each plant can be displayed to its full potential. With the spread of botany as a suitable avocation for the enlightened, the Gardenesque tended to emphasize botanical curiosities and a collector's approach. New plant material that would have seemed bizarre and alien in earlier gardening found settings: Pampas grass from Argentina and Monkey-puzzle trees. Winding paths linked scattered plantings. The Gardenesque approach involved the creation of small-scale landscapes, dotted with features and vignettes, to promote beauty of detail, variety and mystery, sometimes to the detriment of coherence. Artificial mounds helped to stage groupings of shrubs, and island beds became prominent features.

Historic gardeners

The following names, roughly in historical order, made contributions that affected the history of gardens, whether as botanist explorers, designers, garden-makers, or writers. Further information on them will be found under their individual entries.

Notable historic gardens

References

  • J. S. Berrall, The Garden: An Illustrated History
  • E. Hyams A History of Gardens and Gardening (1971)

External links




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