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Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts respiration. The natural form (D-glucose) is also referred to as dextrose, especially in the food industry.
Glucose (C6H12O6) is a hexose -- a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms. Glucose is an aldehyde (contains a -CHO group). Five of the carbons plus an oxygen atom form a loop called a "pyranose ring", the most stable form for six-carbon aldoses. In this ring, each carbon is linked to hydroxyl and hydrogen side groups with the exception of the fifth atom, which links to a 6th carbon atom outside the ring, forming a CH2OH group. This ring structure exists in equilibrium with a more reactive acyclic form, which makes up 0.0026% at pH 7.
There are two enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) of the sugar -- D-glucose and L-glucose, but in living organisms only the D-isomer is found. The ring structure may form in two different ways, yielding α (alpha) glucose and β (beta) glucose. Structurally, they differ in the orientation of the hydroxyl group linked to the first carbon in the ring. The α form has the hydroxyl group "below" the hydrogen (as the molecule is conventionally drawn, as in the figure above), while the β form has the hydroxyl group "above" the hydrogen. These two forms interconvert on a timescale of hours in aqueous solution, to a ratio of α:β 36:64, in a process called mutarotation.
The older name dextrose arose because a solution of D-glucose rotates polarised light towards the right. In the same vein D-fructose was called "levulose" because a solution of levulose rotates polarised light to the left.
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