Beetle

Beetles

Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Subclass:Pterygota
Superorder:Neoptera
Order:Coleoptera
Families
many: see text

For alternate meanings see: Beetle (disambiguation)

Beetles (Coleoptera) are one of the main groups of insects. The order Coleoptera has more species in it than any other order in the entire animal kingdom, followed closely by the butterflies, bees and wasps, and flies. 40% of all animal species are beetles (about 350,000 species), and every day new species are discovered.

The forewings of beetles are transformed into hard shells, called elytra. These elytra form an armour protecting the abdomen and the sensitive hindwings. The forewings are not used (at least not actively flapped) in flying, but they must (in most species) be raised in order to move the hindwings. After landing the hindwings are folded below the elytra. Most beetles can fly, but few reach the dexterity of some other groups, e.g. flies, and many species only fly if absolutely necessary. Some beetles have elytra that have grown together and cannot fly at all; a few have lost their wings altogether.

Beetles can be found in almost all biotopes, but are not known to occur in the sea or in the polar regions.

Beetles are endopterygotes with complete metamorphosis. The larva of a beetle is called a grub.

When J. B. S. Haldane, British physiologist and philosopher, was asked what his studies of nature revealed about God, he replied, "An inordinate fondness for beetles."

The study of beetles is called coleopterology, and its practioners coleopterists. See list of notable coleopterists.

Table of contents
1 Notable types
2 Subgroups
3 Reference

Notable types

Well-known types of beetles include:


Aphthona flava flea beetle.

Subgroups

The extraordinary number of beetle species poses special problems for classification, with some families consisting of thousands of species and needing further division into subfamilies and tribes.

ORDER COLEOPTERA

  • Suborder Archostemata Kolbe 1908
    • Cupedidae Laporte 1836 (reticulated beetles)
    • Ommatidae Sharp and Muir 1912
    • Crowsonellidae Iablokoff-Khnzorian 1983
    • Micromalthidae Barber 1983 (telephone-pole beetles)
  • Suborder Myxophaga Crowson 1955
    • Lepiceridae Hinton 1936
    • Microsporidae Crotch 1873 (minute bog beetles)
    • Hydroscaphidae LeConte 1874 (skiff beetles)
    • Torridincolidae Steffan 1964
  • Suborder Adephaga Schellenberg 1806
    • Rhysodidae Laporte 1840 (wrinkled bark beetles)
    • Carabidae Latreille 1802 (ground beetles)
    • Gyrinidae Latreille 1802 (whirligig beetles)
    • Paussidae
    • Haliplidae Aube 1836 (crawling water beetles)
    • Trachypachidae C.G. Thomson 1857 (false ground beetles)
    • Noteridae C.G. Thomson 1860 (burrowing water beetles)
    • Amphizoidae LeConte 1853 (trout-stream beetles)
    • Hygrobiidae
    • Dytiscidae Leach 1815 (predacious diving beetles)
  • Suborder Polyphaga Emery 1886
    • Series Staphyliniformia Lameere 1900
    • Superfamily Hydrophiloidea
    • Hydrophilidae Latreille 1802 (water scavenger beetles)
    • Superfamily Histeroidea
    • Sphaeritidae Schuckard 1839 (false clown beetles)
    • Synteliidae
    • Histeridae Gyllenhal (clown beetles)
    • Superfamily Staphylinoidea
    • Sphaeriidae
    • Clambidae
    • Limulodidae
    • Hydroscaphidae
    • Ptiliidae
    • Leptinidae
    • Anisotomidae
    • Silphidae Latreille 1807 (carrion beetles)
    • Scydmaenidae Leach 1815 (antlike stone beetles)
    • Scaphidiidae
    • Pselaphidae
    • Staphylinidae Latreille 1802 (rove beetles)
    • Series Scarabaeiformia Crowson 1960
    • Superfamily Scarabaeoidea Latreille 1802
    • Lucanidae Latreille 1804 (stag beetles)
    • Diphyllostomatidae Holloway 1972
    • Passalidae Leach 1815 (bess beetles)
    • Glaresidae Sememovrlan-Shanskii and Medvedev 1932
    • Trogidae MacLeay 1819 (skin beetles)
    • Pleocomidae LeConte 1861 (rain beetles)
    • Geotrupidae Latreille 1802 (earth-boring dung beetles)
    • Belohinidae Paulian 1959
    • Ochodaeidae Mulsant and Rey 1871 (ochodaeid scarab beetles)
    • Hybosoridae Erichson 1847 (hybosorid scarab beetles)
    • Ceratocanthidae Cartwright and Gordon 1971
    • Glaphyridae MacLeay 1819
    • Scarabaeidae (scarab beetles)
    • Acanthoceridae(?)
    • Series Elateriformia Crowson 1960
    • Podabrocephalidae
    • Rhinorhipidae
    • Superfamily Scirtoidea Fleming 1821
    • Decliniidae Nikitsky et al 1994
    • Eucinetidae Lacordaire 1857 (plate-thigh beetles)
    • Clambidae Fischer 1821 (minute beetles)
    • Scirtidae Fleming 1821 (marsh beetles)
    • Superfamily Dascilloidea Guerin-Meneville 1843
    • Dascillidae
    • Rhipiceridae Latreille 1834 (cicada parasite beetles)
    • Helodidae(?)
    • Superfamily Buprestoidea
    • Schizopodidae LeConte 1861
    • Buprestidae Leach 1815 (metallic wood-boring beetles)
    • Superfamily Byrrhoidea Latreille 1804
    • Byrrhidae Latreille 1804 (pill beetles)
    • Elmidae Curtis 1830 (riffle beetles)
    • Dryopidae Billberg 1820 (long-toes beetles)
    • Lutrochidae Kasap and Crowson 1975 (robust marsh-loving beetles)
    • Limnichidae Erichson 1846 (minute marsh-loving beetles)
    • Heteroceridae MacLeay 1825 (variegated marsh-loving beetles)
    • Psephenidae Lacordaire 1854 (water penny beetles)
    • Cneoglossidae Champion 1897
    • Ptilodactylidae Laporte 1836 (toe-winged beetles)
    • Chelonariidae Blanchard 1845 (turtle beetles)
    • Eulichadidae Crowson 1973
    • Callirhipidae Emden 1924 (cedar beetles)
    • Georyssidae(?)
    • Eurypogonidae(?)
    • Superfamily Elateroidea Leach 1815
    • Artematopodidae Lacordaire 1857 (soft-bodied plant beetles)
    • Brachypsectridae Leconte and Horn 1883 (Texas beetles)
    • Cerophytidae Latreille 1834 (rare click beetles)
    • Eucnemidae Eschscholtz 1829 (false click beetles)
    • Throscidae Laporte 1840 (false metallic wood-boring beetles)
    • Elateridae Leach 1815 (click beetles)
    • Plastoceridae Crowson 1972
    • Drilidae Blanchard 1845
    • Omalisidae Lacordaire 1857
    • Lycidae Laporte 1836 (net-winged beetles)
    • Telegeusidae Leng 1920 (long-lipped beetles)
    • Phengodidae LeConte 1861 (glowworm beetles)
    • Lampyridae Latreille 1817 (firefly beetles)
    • Omethidae LeConte 1861 (false firefly beetles)
    • Cantharidae Imhoff 1856 (soldier beetles)
    • Trixagidae(?)
    • Cebrionidae(?)
    • Series Bostrichiformia Forbes 1826
    • Jacobsoniidae Heller 1926 (Jacobon's beetles)
    • Superfamily Derodontoidea LeConte 1861
    • Derodontidae LeConte 1861 (tooth-necked fungus beetles)
    • Superfamily Bostrichoidea Latreille 1802
    • Nosodendridae Erichson 1846 (wounded-tree beetles)
    • Dermestidae Latreille 1804 (skin and larder beetles)
    • Bostrichidae Latreille 1802 (horned powder-post beetles)
    • Anobiidae Fleming 1821 (death-watch beetles)
    • Thorictidae(?)
    • Ptinidae(?)
    • Lyctidae - Powder Post Beetle(?)
    • Series Cucujiformia Lameere 1938
    • Superfamily Lymexyloidea Fleming 1821
    • Lymexylidae Fleming 1821 (ship-timber beetles)
    • Superfamily Cleroidea Latreille 1802
    • Phloiophilidae Kiesenwetter 1863
    • Trogossitidae Latreille 1802 (bark-gnawing beetles)
    • Chaerosomatidae Crowson 1952
    • Cleridae Latreille 1802 (checkered beetles)
    • Acanthocnemidae Crowson 1964
    • Phycosecidae Crowson 1952
    • Prionoceridae Lacordaire 1857
    • Melyridae Leach 1815 (soft-winged flower beetles)
    • Superfamily Cucujoidea Latreille 1802
    • Protocucujidae Crowson 1954
    • Sphindidae Jacquelin du Val 1860 (dry-fungus beetles)
    • Brachypteridae Erichson 1845 (short-winged flower beetles)
    • Nitidulidae Latreille 1802 (sap-feeding beetles)
    • Smicripidae Horn 1879 (palmetto beetles)
    • Monotomidae Laporte 1840 (root-eating beetles)
    • Boganiidae Sen Gupta and Crowson 1966
    • Helotidae Reitter 1876
    • Phloeostichidae Reitter 1911
    • Silvanidae Kirby 1937 (silvanid flat bark beetles)
    • Passandridae Erichson 1845 (parasitic flat bark beetles)
    • Cucujidae Latreille 1802 (flat bark beetles)
    • Laemophloeidae Ganglbauer 1899 (lined flat bark beetles)
    • Propalticidae Crowson 1952
    • Phalacridae Leach 1815 (shining flower beetles)
    • Hobartiidae Sen Gupta and Crowson 1966
    • Cavognathidae Sen Gupta and Crowson 1966
    • Cryptophagidae Kirby 1937 (silken fungus beetles)
    • Lamingtoniidae Sen Gupta and Crowson 1966
    • Languriidae Crotch 1873 (lizard beetles)
    • Erotylidae Latreille 1802 (pleasing fungus beetles)
    • Byturidae Jacquelin du Val 1858 (fruitworm beetles)
    • Biphyllidae LeConte 1861 (false skin beetles)
    • Bothrideridae Erichson 1845 (dry bark beetles)
    • Cerylonidae Billberg 1820 (minute bark beetles)
    • Alexiidae Imhoff 1856
    • Discolomatidae Horn 1878
    • Endomychidae Leach 1815 (handsome fungus beetles)
    • Coccinellidae Latreille 1807 (ladybird beetles)
    • Corylophidae LeConte 1852 (minute fungus beetles)
    • Latridiidae Erichson 1842 (minute brown scavenger beetles)
    • Rhizophagidae(?)
    • Cisidae(?)
    • Merophysiidae(?)
    • Superfamily Tenebrionoidea Latreille 1802
    • Mycetophagidae Leach 1815 (hairy fungus beetles)
    • Archeocrypticidae Kaszab 1964
    • Pterogeniidae Crowson 1953
    • Ciidae Leach 1819 (minute tree-fungus beetles)
    • Tetratomidae Billberg 1820 (polypore fungus beetles)
    • Melandryidae Leach 1815 (false darkling beetles)
    • Mordellidae Latreille 1802 (tumbling flower beetles)
    • Rhiphiphoridae Gemminger and Harold 1870 (wedge-shaped beetles)
    • Colydiidae Erichson 1842 (cylindrical bark beetles)
    • Monommatidae Blanchard 1845 (opossum beetles)
    • Zopheridae Solier 1834 (ironclad beetles)
    • Ulodidae Pascoe 1869
    • Perimylopidae St. George 1939
    • Chalcodryidae Watt 1974
    • Trachelostenidae Lacordaire 1859
    • Tenebrionidae (darkling beetles)
    • Prostomidae C. G. Thomson 1859 (jugular-horned beetles)
    • Synchroidae Lacordaire 1859
    • Oedemeridae Latreille 1810 (pollen-feeding beetles)
    • Stenotrachelidae C. G. Thomson 1859 (false long-horned beetles)
    • Meloidae Gyllenhal 1810 (blister beetles)
    • Mycteridae Blanchard 1845 (palm and flower beetles)
    • Boridae C. G. Thomson 1859 (conifer bark beetles)
    • Trictenotomidae Blanchard 1845
    • Pythidae Solier 1834 (dead log bark beetles)
    • Pyrochroidae Latreille 1807 (fire-colored beetles)
    • Salpingidae Leach 1815 (narrow-waisted bark beetles)
    • Anthicidae Latreille 1819 (antlike flower beetles)
    • Aderidae Winkler 1927 (antlike leaf beetles)
    • Scraptiidae Mulsant 1856 (false flower beetles)
    • Nilionidae(?)
    • Lagriidae(?)
    • Alleculidae(?)
    • Elacatidae(?)
    • Inopeplidae(?)
    • Cononotidae(?)
    • Hemipeplidae(?)
    • Cephaloidae(?)
    • Pedilidae(?)
    • Petriidae(?)
    • Superfamily Chrysomeloidea Latreille 1802
    • Cerambycidae Latreille 1802 (long-horned beetles)
    • Bruchidae Latreille 1802 (pea and bean weevils)
    • Megalopodidae Latreille 1802
    • Orsodacnidae C. G. Thomson 1869
    • Chrysomelidae Latreille 1802 (leaf beetles)
      • Cassidinae (tortoise beetles subfamily
    • Superfamily Curculionoidea Latreille 1802
    • Nemonychidae Bedel 1882 (pine-flower snout beetles)
    • Anthribidae Billberg 1820 (fungus weevils)
    • Belidae Schonherr 1826 (primitive weevils)
    • Attelabidae Billberg 1820 (tooth-nosed snout beetles)
    • Brentidae Billberg 1820 (straight-snouted weevils)
    • Caridae Thompson 1992
    • Ithyceridae Schonherr 1823 (New York weevils)
    • Curculionidae Latreille 1802 (snout beetles and true weevils)
    • Oxycorynidae(?)
    • Aglycyderidae(?)
    • Apionidae(?)

Reference

  • Ross H. Arnett, Jr and Michael C. Thomas, American Beetles (CRC Press, 2001)



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